Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour and mind. It includes both cognitive and behavioural science, and the study of unconscious and conscious processes. It is also an educational field of enormous scope. It has many sub-specialties, like ethology, anthropology, history, mathematics, medical, social, and psychology. A doctoral program in psychology will provide students with a solid background in research methodology, descriptive methodology, sample studies, experimental design, research synthesis, and psychological theory and concepts.
The key to understanding human behavior is to adopt a unified framework that encompasses multiple disciplines. Only by working within a single framework can psychologists begin to understand how behavior relates to brain processes, learning and motivation, and information processing. This effort within a single framework helps to build a solid foundation on which to build theories. As psychology progresses, the methods used become more refined, and they are applied in more specific contexts. Understanding the nature of behaviour, its causes, and its relationships to culture and society is deeply rooted in psychology.
In addition to working within a theoretical framework, psychologists make use of a wide range of techniques in their pursuit of understanding behaviour. Examples include testing, behavioral observation, neuropsychological assessments, and interventions using placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and medication. Some of the most common techniques psychologists use include classical conditioning, behavior-transforming or stimulus control, folk psychology, and pharmacological therapy. A large part of psychology continues to be controversial, as is the general aspect of it, even today. Today however, most psychologists agree that behavior and the human mind are strongly influenced by environmental factors and that individuals can be affected by mental disorders, including schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorders.